Water is a food as well as the most common component of food. Even dry foods contain some water, and the degree of water content affects almost every aspect of food: stability, taste, texture, and spoilage. Most food molecules contain OH, CO, NH, and polar groups.

These sites strongly interact with water molecules by hydrogen bonding and dipoledipole interactions. Furthermore, dipole-ion, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic interactions also occur between water and food molecules.

The properties of hydrogen-bonded water molecules differ from those in bulk water, and they affect the water molecules next to them. There is no clear boundary for affected and unaffected water molecules. Yet it is convenient to divide them into bound water and free water. This is a vague division, and a consensus definition is hard to reach.

Water is life

Fennema and Tannenbaum (1996) give a summary of various criteria for them, indicating a diverse opinion. However, the concept is useful, because it helps us understand the changes that occur in food when it is heated, dried, cooled, or refrigerated.

Moreover, when water is the major ingredient, interactions with other ingredients modify the properties of the water molecules. These aspects were discussed earlier in connection with aqueous solutions.

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